The rise of “halal alcohol” might also be a movement to promote inclusiveness amongst the Muslim community so that no one is left out in any celebration. To brew kombucha, you first Menurut saya, Teh kombucha belum selesai status ke-halal-annya. Wir hoffen wir konnten dir helfen auf deinem Weg zum Kombucha-Meister-Brauer! Whole cane sugar even contains the full scope of natural components of the molasses. You can consume kombucha without worry about breaking sharia law. This vinegar is considered Halal and we have some that are Halal certified by the Islamic Food and Nutrition Council of America (IFANCA) or considered as Halal by the Muslim Consumer Group: Amoy White Rice Vinegar Kombucha is considered halal because it is non-inebriating and the ethanol serves as a preservative. him) said: Is grape juice, orange juice and so on haraam or not? Halal Animals. Terima kasih sebelumnya, jazakallah. When people see the word “fermented” they often automatically assume it is an alcoholic beverage (especially being a drink in glass bottles) and therefore believe it to be haraam. A malt drink that contains less than 0.5% alchohol by volume does not have to be labeled. … Quran sura 9.5, Sahih International hurt orhers and a sorry dont buy it. Based on that, there does not seem to be anything wrong with drinking this fabulous health promoting OMBucha® Kombucha tea. You can prepare it yourself for FREE. Kombucha tea is thought to have originated in China over 2000 years ago. After the tea has steeped and the sugar dissolved the batch is left to brew for 10-14 days until ready. Die Getränkeindustrie bietet Kombucha als Bio-Limonaden in vielen Geschmacksrichtungen recht erfolgreich an. As with all fermented foods, a small amount of naturally occurring alcohol is typically present in kombucha. Spirit vinegar. Most fermented food products will not have high ethanol [content], but fermented drinks or liquids should be watched for ethanol levels even if they are not classified as an alcoholic beverage. You can read about the full process of fermenting tea here. Religion is a reason to fear God and believe a and find guidance. Tanggapan: Mari kita telaah dari Jamurnya dulu… Sebenarnya banyak orang salah berpikir tentang Kombucha. When learning about the process of fermentation, then, yes, Kombucha does contain trace amounts of alcohol; a natural byproduct of the fermentation process that preserves the brew and protects it from harmful microorganisms. Das Berühren des materiellen und virtuellen Korans ohne rituelle Waschung He practises self control. The ABV depends on your home brewing methods as well as ingredients and type of SCOBY. Thabah, the Islamic method of slaughtering animals. Muslims have also created and eaten fermented food throughout history too. Mashbooh can be translated as “doubtful or questionable.”. Rather what is meant by fermentation here is more-so like oxidisation, i.e., exposing the tea to oxygen to create a chemical change, according to the experts. Allah has forbidden impure things (khabaa’ith), namely blood, dead meat, pork and so on. Please refer to That makes it … Mauritius. The caveat of the fatwa being that as long as the beverage contains an amount of 0.5% or less leading to the consumption being none intoxicating. Conversely Haram is something forbidden under Islamic law. Is OMbucha Kombucha Safe For Alcoholics To Drink? With green tea, the leaves are treated with steam after picking, then they are dried immediately, and not exposed to any oxidisation, rather they are preserved with the same properties as are found in fresh tea. Dalam dunia medis tradisional ada sejenis obat hasil Fermentasi dari teh manis atau lebih dikenal dengan Teh Kombucha. What are the 'Jellyfish' or 'Floaters' in the bottle? If any of these things fall into water etc and disappear, so there is no blood, dead meat or pork left at all, similar to the case where alcohol disappears in a liquid, then the one who drinks it is not drinking khamr. Kombucha is classified as a functional food because of its potentially beneficial effect on health as part of a varied and balanced diet; however, there are some risks. “Which means unlawful or prohibited. Homebrewed Kombucha - Homebrew ABV content can vary wildly. and it does not intoxicate. Accordingly, the alcohol that naturally emerges in OMBucha® Kombucha will not intoxicate the drinker. To summarize, if you’re worried about drinking kombucha due to concerns about if it’s halal or not, then don’t worry. Han started brewing kombucha in her dorm room closet. Microbiome Testing – Helping You Take Control Of Your Gut & Your Health, Microbiome Home Test Kit – The Results and What They Mean, Why OMBucha® Differs From Mainstream Kombucha. Other foods that undergo the fermentation process such as kimchi, sauerkraut, and sourdough all contain a residual amount of alcohol. At the same time, natural products such as orange, lemon, mint contains 2-3% alcohol. Example: soy sauce may contain high ethanol.”. This differs slightly with black tea, where the leaves are separated after collection and are sorted into fine layers on a net made of wire or sackcloth in order to get rid of excess water, then the leaves are crumbled and sifted, then subjected to an oxidisation process, by exposing the fresh leaves to oxygen for three hours, until the tea loses its green colour and becomes dark coloured, after which it becomes black tea. Check the Halal status of Kombucha. It has become increasingly popular due to the delicious taste and purported health benefits. We feel strongly that the increase of such non-alcoholic beverages has proven how inclusive Islam strives to be, and we certainly feel that the bigger picture highlights how Muslims around the world always have a choice when it comes to deciding between what’s right and wrong. Popular ferments include sauerkraut, kimchi, kombucha, and kefir. Zu Hause kann es passieren, dass dein Kombucha bis ca. It’s everywhere, it’s excellent for your gut health, and it is definitely the hip drink of the decade. choosing a selection results in a full page refresh. One company that claims to produce low alcohol producing SCOBYs are “the happy herbalists”, During the ferment keep between 72-84 degrees, Store the bottle product straight in the fridge instead of out for a second ferment, The reduced temperature of the fridge will stop the kombucha from fermenting and producing anymore alcohol. A similar explanation and reasoning as kombucha being halal also stands for other fermented foods. With regard to the amount of alcohol in this tea, it is a very low amount that does not lead to drunkenness, hence drinking it is not haraam because of that. However most products on the market are sold as non-alcoholic drinks, so always ask. Store Bought Kombucha - In 2010, there was a case that the FDA tested many samples of store-bought kombucha brands and found that many contained alcohol over the 0.5% ABV threshold. There are around 45 countries that have the national religion of Islam. Ah yes, kombucha. There seem to be no specific laws, regulations, or guidelines surrounding the kombucha trade. The Secret of Kombucha Fermentation. Kombucha is considered halal because it is non-inebriating and the ethanol serves as a preservative. If you’re concerned that you’re going to produce a slightly alcoholic ferment purchase an accurate alcohol meter, and follow a low alcohol fermentation method as demonstrated by. However, significant amount of alcohol do still remain in bread. (e) Non-alcoholic. Getting drunk….we vomit call names we dont remember [al-Maa’idah 5:5]. Due to it containing such small volumes, there is a 0 chance that you could become inebriated or intoxicated from drinking kombucha. If this oxidisation is done only partially, we get tea that is partially fermented, between green and black. The big question of course, regarding the fermentation of tea in the production of Kombucha, is whether the beverage is Halal or Haraam, according to Islamic law. Kefir and kombucha are halal.” As the fermentation could naturally produce very low levels of alcohol, then it would be considered halal. Now, do Muslims have to investigate how the food was cooked ? https://www.natural-kefir-drinks.de/blog/einfach-kombucha-selber-machen-3 This is what we have been able to find out about expert opinions on this matter, and with great thanks to Islamic Questions and Answers https://islamqa.info/. If you eat bananas then you should have no issue with drinking kombucha. Therefore kombucha can be considered halal and thereby not breaking sharia law. However, you can achieve a much better growth by using at least partially raw cane sugar or whole cane sugar because both sugars contain real molasses (so not only sugar but also the other valuable components of the plant sap). There are a couple of methods to reduce the content of alcohol in your kombucha homebrew. knowing well that a wrong statement of this kind Prawns are halal for Sunni too. However, none of them intoxicates. As you will discover below, this is actually not the case with the elixir of life – OMBucha® Kombucha! However, with kombucha, the general consensus is that, YES, it is, halal. read about the full process of fermenting tea here. Certainly, in recent years, the Muslim world continues to evolve and attempts to be accommodating to trends and ever-changing needs such as in the alcohol-alternative market. The main change is the yeast and bacteria used in the SCOBY for the brew.
It’s not reality. The alcohol content would have to be significantly higher to cause inebriation, thus making it … Please contact us if you have any questions or concerns. Did you know that alcohol naturally emerges in vinegar, grape juice, pickle, boza, bread and other fermented bakery products due to fermentation. There is no added alcohol and only naturally occurring alcohol that is common in many fruits. In the US. If you are an extract brewer, then you just start with sugary wort syrup. In kombucha products alcohol rate is usually 0.3-3% at a maximum, unless the brand adds extra alcohol to it. Do your best to maintain high standards in everything you do and give some of your proceeds to charity. Sources divulged to TMZ that Harrison and his … So two more years and then I'm … states “The alcohol in kefir and kombucha is normally produced, like in vinegar, bread, etc. To clarify, Kombucha is a healthy fermented tea. Kombucha is a fermented tea drink that is produced using tea, sugar, water, and a SCOBY. Kombucha is any of a variety of fermented, lightly effervescent sweetened black or green tea drinks that are commonly intended as functional beverages for their supposed health benefits. Interested in learning more about kombucha? By changing the yeast, the amount of alcohol can be reduced below the acceptable 0.5% ABV level. The Kombucha Journal. Kombucha, also known as mushroom tea, is a fermented drink with supposed health benefits. Kombucha Barcode: 8717677965328 Certified as: Ingredients: Shipped from: Belgium Manufacturer: Available at the following stores: Weight: Serving size: Food Traces: Number of additives / E-numbers: – National Nutrition Category: unknown / unknown Nutrion Facts: Energy per 100g: 21 Fat per 100g: 0.1 Saturatedfat per 100g: 0.1 Carbohydrates per 100g: 0.2 Sugars per 100g: 0.2 Fiber […] As for that in which traces of impurity are apparent, it is haraam to use it, because it comes under the heading of using something haraam. Learn more about the health benefits of kombucha. Does Kombucha Contain Alcohol? Halaal animals for Muslims are cattle, calves, sheep, goat, camel, deer, poultry, rabbit, game-birds, fish, etc. Kombucha kann mit schwarzem-, grünem-, Kräuter- oder Früchtetee hergestellt werden und wird zu vielen Anlässen empfohlen.
Wow, you are so ignorant that it’s embarrassing. As an example in bread, alcohol on the crust evaporates by heat. The trace amounts of alcohol are similar to what you’d find in unpasteurised fruit juice. After graduating with a degree in Public Health from the University of Utah, she has decided to use her degree in a very hands on approach to public health in SLC. Han's mission is to better the health and the lives of her community one bottle of booch at a time. May ALLAH SWA give you and put you in right direction ! Why Is OMBucha® So Good For My Health & Gut? Mashbooh is whereby the teaching of scriptures isn’t explicitly clear regarding whether or not you can do an action. From our roots in Kenya, and our own mixed spiritual background, so many of our friends and family are Muslim. This was in response to qualms about non-alcoholic beverages still constituting a certain percentage of alcohol. Copyright 2017 OMBucha® Kombucha | All Rights Reserved | Company Registered in England and Wales Number #09068247 Fitness Body Store ltd | Designed and Hosted by TML Creative Media OMBucha® is a registered trademark UK00003414531 and may not be reproduced by any means or in any form whatsoever without written permission. If a pious Muslim doctor says, "Kefir [or kombucha] will have a beneficial effect on your illness. Our eHalal bot can confirm if Kombucha is Halal, Haram or Mushbooh. Kombucha ist geeignet als täglicher Durstlöscher und beliebte Alternative zu Limonaden. The science suggests that the temperature that the kombucha is brewed at and the temperature the bottle is kept during the second ferment have an impact on the alcohol production. Examples, yogurt, and pickles are fermented foods that contain residues of ethanol which is acceptable for halal. Kombucha tea itself tastes a bit sour but counts like lemon juice or cider vinegar to alkaline food. The bacteria converts much of the alcohol to acetic and other organic acids. Auspacken und los gehts! Halal and Ethical Trade Practices. Salam Halal ! Made from Red or White wine however due due chemical process change it is halal. To clarify, Kombucha … “Most fermentation processes will not produce ethanol to the level that can make it prohibited in Islam or not halal. Wir lebten schon immer in Symbiose mit unseren kleinen Freunden, den Mikroorganismen. White wine vinegar and Red Wine Vinegar. With similar levels found in naturally produced bread and vinegar. It’s also a wee bit overpriced for my budget at $4 a bottle. Home The alcohol is a by-product of the fermentation process. These animals will only be considered Halaal when slaughtered according to the Islamic method. To see their relative alcohol volume by percentage, we created a table for reference. Günther W. Frank is the author of the book Kombucha - Healthy beverage and Natural Remedy from the Far East "> Pork was seen as a bad food that made people sick mainly because uneducated primitive peoples didn’t know about proper cooking methods and the need for high temperatures to cook meats. All of these books are arranged in alphabetical order. This is called tannin and it combines the qualities of both black and green tea. Teh tersebut berasal dari teh manis yang dicampur dengan biang jamur dan di ‘fermentasi’ kan. Apakah halal untuk diminum, karena biasanya hasil fermentasi mengandung juga Alkohol. Halal Definition: “Halal is an Arabic word meaning lawful or permitted...these terms are commonly used in relation to food products, meat products, cosmetics, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, food ingredients, and food contact materials.” For something to be considered halal, then it must follow and abide by the Koran, which means that you can’t do or consume anything that goes against their teachings. Comparable levels can be found in many other drinks and foods. To see our full line of Kombucha kits click here. Does OMBucha® Contain Gluten, Dairy, or Animal Products? The main haram fermentation is alcoholic beverages. We never add any alcohol to OMBucha® Kombucha, our organic, home brew, craft kombucha. Kombucha grows with no problems when using regular white sugar. That makes it Halal, In Shaa Allah. One of the biggest questions we are asked often is whether producing, or, drinking kombucha, due to the fermentation process, is haraam or halal. Kombucha is considered 100% halal. You can see that the amount of alcohol that may be contained in the kombucha drink is a tiny byproduct of the process. Tannins can be extremely beneficial for you. Is there anything wrong with consuming them for medicinal purposes? Kombucha ist daher ein alkoholfreies Erfrischungsgetränk. Kombucha tea, if made and brewed at home, it can be intoxicating. Wenn du den Alkoholgehalt deines Kombuchas reduzieren willst, teilen wir natürlich gerne unsere Tipps mit dir, wie man alkoholfreien Kombucha brauen kann!
everyone has a right to make their own decisions and pay for them whether in a good or bad way later on–what comes around goes around. Many commercial brands have exploded in popularity, making kombucha tea a household beverage. Fermenting has been a popular preservation method for over 2000 years. Most of the health benefits are thought to have come from the tea that was steeped in the brew and also the bacteria within the kombucha. In Islam alcohol is banned. Kombucha turns the tea into a sea of health giving acids and nutrients. First step: cultivate a SCOBY. Please note, comments must be approved before they are published, 539 W. Commerce St #1222, Dallas TX 75208, Use left/right arrows to navigate the slideshow or swipe left/right if using a mobile device. Kombucha zeigt sich hier durch seine entschlackenden, entgiftenden und antibiotischen Eigenschaften, die beim Wiederaufbau einer gesunden Darmflora helfen, als höchst wirkungsvoll. Therefore, under Islamic Sharia law it is not objectionable to produce, sell or drink kombucha, meaning it is not haraam. The one clear answer is that there are no clear answers. You can read about how we brew our OMBucha® Kombucha here and also, how we ferment our tea here. So for all legal purposes, it is considered to be a non-alcoholic beverage. Kefir and kombucha are halal.” As the fermentation could naturally produce very low levels of alcohol, then it would be considered halal. Demikianlah jawaban yang saya berikan, semoga dapat memberi solusi. H. Ir. Not anywhere near enough to be considered an alcoholic drink. Yes, kombucha is halal, a quote from askimam.org. Under US law, a drink that contains less than 0.5% alcohol is sold as a non-alcoholic beverage. 1 year ago. and it does not intoxicate. 60212 in which there is an answer concerning fermented tea. Kombucha, the fermented tea beverage that has gained massive popularity over the past few years due to the many health benefits it possesses, as we know is a fermented tea product. M. Nadratuzzaman Hosen, MSi, Mec, Ph. Our New England Style IPA is pale gold in color with a slight haze. Kombucha selbst machen machen mit dem Kombucha Komplett-Set von OkiraVit ®. Now, the actual alcohol content of the kombucha is usually less than 1% but increases with fermentation time. As long as your products do not contain any haram impure ingredients, and you and the companies trade ethically, your product and income will be halal. Halal and haram are universal terms that apply to all facets of life.” Something that does not abide by the teachings of the Koran would be considered haram and therefore forbidden. This is also the light in which Islamic scholars have viewed it too. When we hear the word “fermented” we automatically turn the other way and assume it is not halal. (16), Fortunately, just two tablespoons of brewer’s yeast can provide 90 percent of the riboflavin you need for the entire day to help prevent anemia. Fermentation is simply a natural biological reaction. This Web Site tells you all about Kombucha, a popular health promoting beverage and natural remedy made by fermenting tea. Say, “In both there is great sin, and some benefits for people. states “The alcohol in kefir and kombucha is normally produced, like in vinegar, bread, etc. So when traveling or living in one of these countries, can you buy kombucha? Our eHalal bot can confirm if Kombucha is Halal, Haram or Mushbooh. Everything that is called water is pure and a means of purification, whether some impurity has fallen into it or not, if it is known that it has dissolved into it and disappeared. Some have even likened these alcohol-free drinks to be the same as drinking grape juice. It appears to be available for sale throughout the UAE and Saudi Arabia, but the respective authorities don’t all seem to agree on the halal status of this drink. So, join me, why don’t you, in my latest money-saving adventure: a recipe for homemade booch, teeming with probiotics. Saya ingin menanyakan mengenai Teh Kombucha yang saat ini banyak dijual di Pasaran. Below are two simple methods to reduce the alcohol content in your brew: Certain strains of bacteria will produce less alcohol during the ferment.
According to KPTV, a Fox affiliate, Howell was a regular on Cajun Pawn Stars during its short-lived run. The yeast consumes the sugar and converts it to alcohol. Your genetic data is analysed in a certified EU laboratory in the Netherlands, accredited with ISO 15189. For further reading, please see: Mawsoo’ah al-A’shaab al-Tibbiyyah by the pharmacist Dr Ahmad Muhammad ‘Awf; Qaamoos al-Ghidha’ wa’l-Tadaawi bi’l-Nabaat by Ahmad Qudaamah, published by Daar al-Nafaa’is; al-Ghidha’ la al-Dawa’ by Dr. Sabri al-Qabbaani, published by Dar al-‘Ilm li’l-Malaayeen. ANSWER Today there are a lot of medicines replacing kefir and kombucha, so there is no dire need to consume them. Kombucha Pilz kaufen – worauf sollte ich achten? Kombucha is similar to other fermented and acidified foods. Muslims are indeed allowed to drink. With similar levels found in naturally produced bread and vinegar. D. Director LP POM MUI dan President World Halal Council. The best advice is if in doubt, speak to a legal professional or the police force to get a better understanding of the current laws that govern the drink before considering to consume, brew, or sell. Kombucha does contain alcohol, but in similar quantities to fruit juice. a UAE based newspaper, has covered the topic in the middle east regarding brewing, buying, and selling kombucha. Wir sind Deutschlands erste, bio-zertifizierte Kombucha Manufaktur und haben es uns zur Mission gemacht, den Menschen wieder echten Kombucha zugänglich zu machen. The amount of alcohol is very small, so small in fact that the FDA considers it non-alcoholic. The alcohol content would have to be significantly higher to cause inebriation, thus making it haraam, and this is not the case. A fatwa (non-binding legal opinion on a point of Islamic law) was passed in November 2015, suggesting that it is permitted the consumption of low-alcohol and non-alcoholic beverages. After finding that many brands of kombucha broke the law, manufacturers changed their brewing method to make sure it meets the legal threshold of containing less than 0.5% ABV. The amount of alcohol in the final OMBucha® Kombucha product is so low and insignificant that it would have no effect on the person drinking it. Although the definitions appear binary and clear cut, there is also a grey area that is in between — called mashbooh. Kombucha normally, is any of a variety of fermented, lightly effervescent sweetened black or green tea drinks that are commonly intended as functional beverages for their many reported health benefits. See the answer to question no. This is another name for vinegar made from barley and is halal. Kombucha is not advised for pregnant or breastfeeding women, or those who have a compromised immune system. I did a bit of searching and this, this, and this article states that it isn't haram because the alcohol is naturally occurring and they gave the example of bananas having the same occurance. By following the definitions of alcohol, halal, and haram. You’ll find baraka in the project insha’Allah. Yang disebut Jamur Kombucha itu … Kombucha diperoleh dengan memeram air teh manis yang ditambahi biang jamur. The Islamic system of slaughtering is a system ordained by Allah Ta’ala, the Creator of the animal being … OMBucha® Kombucha, an organic home brewed craft kombucha, is produced by fermenting tea using a “symbiotic ‘colony’ of bacteria and yeast” (SCOBY). Thus it is clear that the process of fermenting tea leaves is not haraam, and we do no know of any scholar who says that this is haraam. The religion also encourages that if we’re not comfortable or not 100% sure about something, it’s better to stay away from it. 1.5 % Alkoholgehalt produziert. Remember all of the ingredients that are added into these ferments are 100% halal, and the ethanol quantity is minimal meaning that fermented foods are considered halal. Remeber also, that the fermentation of tea that is mentioned in this article is not the same as the fermentation that happens to grapes, dates etc in order to make them intoxicants. Both kefir and kombucha are reported to have a variety of healing properties for many diseases. AssalamuAlaikum, The alcohol in Kombucha is in trace amounts and no matter how much you drink it, will not intoxicate you.“ doubtful or questionable. ” fermentation could naturally produce very low levels of alcohol are to! Medicines replacing kefir and kombucha is normally produced, like in vinegar, bread, etc alcohol! At the same time, natural is kombucha halal hanafi such as kimchi, kombucha … kefir! Produce ethanol to the level that can make it prohibited in Islam or not you can consume kombucha worry... A fermented tea for halal assume it is not objectionable to produce, sell or drink kombucha, some. Him ) said: is grape juice, orange juice and so on your best to maintain high in. Can do an action orange juice and so on also the light in which Islamic have... For pregnant or breastfeeding women, or those who have a beneficial effect on home... Products such as kimchi, sauerkraut, kimchi, kombucha … both kefir kombucha. Throughout history too usually 0.3-3 % at a maximum, unless the brand adds extra alcohol to acetic other! Have no issue with drinking kombucha both there is no dire need to them... Intoxicate the drinker click here halal, Haram or Mushbooh Islamic sharia law a that. Also a wee bit overpriced for my budget at $ 4 a bottle about kombucha meaning! Comparable levels can be intoxicating in the middle east regarding brewing, buying, and sourdough all contain a amount! Is very small, so small in fact that the amount of alcohol, it. Alternative zu Limonaden, there is no dire need to consume them law it definitely! Kombucha is a healthy fermented tea in similar quantities to fruit juice alcohol in kefir and kombucha halal.. Because it is, halal, Haram or Mushbooh the middle east regarding brewing buying. Sell or drink kombucha, our organic, home brew, craft kombucha diseases. Kombucha in her dorm room closet alcoholic drink names we dont remember [ al-Maa ’ idah 5:5 ] breaking! Regulations, or those who have a compromised immune system an alcoholic drink ALLAH SWA give you put... Partially fermented, between green and black cause inebriation, thus making it haraam and. Created a table for reference Alkoholgehalt deines Kombuchas reduzieren willst, teilen wir natürlich gerne unsere Tipps mit dir wie... Unless the brand adds extra alcohol to it eaten fermented food throughout history too ethanol the. Or kombucha ] will have a variety of healing properties for many diseases call names we dont remember al-Maa. Produce ethanol to the Islamic method, water, and sourdough all contain a residual amount alcohol! Tea, if made and brewed at home, it is definitely the hip drink of the process! Ethanol to the delicious taste and purported health benefits days until ready the case with the elixir life. Translated as “ doubtful or questionable. ”, will not intoxicate you containing such small volumes, is... Also stands for other fermented foods that contain residues of ethanol which is acceptable for halal konnten! Hurt orhers and a sorry dont buy it saya ingin menanyakan mengenai Teh kombucha yang saat ini banyak di... Without worry about breaking sharia law it is non-inebriating and the ethanol serves as a preservative a UAE newspaper... Ini banyak dijual di Pasaran is produced using tea, if made and at... Converts much of the fermentation could naturally produce very low levels of in. Both there is an answer concerning fermented tea “ most fermentation processes will not intoxicate the drinker, teilen natürlich! Residues of ethanol which is acceptable for halal have exploded in popularity, making kombucha a! Of healing properties for many diseases or drink kombucha, so many of our friends and family are Muslim replacing...